Civitas Institute for the Study of Civil Society

7 April 2010

Media Information: EMBARGO: 00.01hrs Friday 9 April 2010


Climate-change policies threatening British jobs


The Government's preoccupation with 'green' energy policies sabotages the competitiveness of manufacturing industry


A new report from the independent think tank Civitas reveals that the increased costs of energy arising from the Government's 'green' energy policies are set to increase significantly.


In British Energy Policy And The Threat To Manufacturing Industry, Ruth Lea and Jeremy Nicholson examine the impact of Government policy on energy prices. They argue that the Government's aim to reduce carbon emissions and its interlinked objective of increasing the proportion of energy generated from renewable sources, are incurring significant costs on energy consumers.


Business electricity bills already incur a 21% 'surcharge' because of 'green' commitments


Lea and Nicholson cite evidence that the Government's climate change strategy is hiking up electricity bills. For example, BERR estimated in 2008 that the 'surcharge' on electricity prices, attributable to climate-change policies, amounted to an extra 14% for domestic users and 21% for business. Furthermore, DECC's The Renewable Energy Strategy (2009) suggested that these surcharges could be as high as 33% and 70% by 2020 respectively.


Lea and Nicholson highlight the two major legislative commitments responsible:


    1. The Climate Change Act (2008) - including a legally binding target of at least an 80% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.


    2. The EU's Renewables Directive (2008) - under which the UK must meet 15% of its final energy consumption through renewable sources by 2020.


Britain will bear a greater cost than other countries


This country is particularly badly placed for such commitments. First, Britain is starting with a very modest renewables industry, so the burden of the EU's Renewables Directive will be substantial:


'The proportion of renewables to total energy consumption in 2005 was just 1.3%, compared with an EU27 average of 8.5%.' (p.7)


Secondly, even without the extra costs associated with climate change policies that are due to be imposed, Lea and Nicholson argue, Britain's industrial electricity prices already tend to be amongst the highest of any major economy. This puts British business and, in particular, energy intensive users at a cost and international competitiveness disadvantage. Moreover, given the expected increases in the climate change surcharges, Britain's cost disadvantage will almost certainly increase, thus undermining competitiveness further.


'Such extra costs will inevitably tilt the balance for many businesses and render them unviable in Britain.' (p.11)


Energy intensive industries to be hardest hit
- with a domino effect on downstream industries


Energy intensive users, including steel, glass and ceramics, bulk chemicals, industrial gases and cement, are especially vulnerable. These are important contributors to GDP not only in their own right but also because of their inter-dependent relationship with 'downstream' industries. As Jeremy Nicholson comments:


'Britain is already losing energy intensive businesses because of the lack of competitiveness... There is no doubt that high energy prices have already been a factor behind industry closures.' (p.11)


Lea and Nicholson outline specific examples of the layers of 'fall out' from such closures - for example, the INEOS Chlor plant in Cheshire manufactures chlorine and caustic soda which are vital inputs to a wide-range of 'downstream' industries including disinfectants, plastics, pharmaceuticals, soaps and detergents.


'Rather than import the basic chemicals, many of the downstream businesses would probably migrate to countries where they were still domestically produced for reasons of reliability of supply and transport costs.' (p.14)


Policy must help rather than hinder


As the economy struggles to emerge from the economic crisis of 2008-2009, it is widely assumed that the manufacturing sector will contribute positively to the general recovery and the rebalancing of the economy. Under these circumstances, the report calls on Government to ensure that manufacturing industries are supported by policies that help rather than hinder their competitiveness. According to Ruth Lea:


'The economy desperately needs a competitive and thriving manufacturing sector if it is to prosper. Competitive energy prices are vital to the success of manufacturers, especially energy intensive users. Government energy policies are, however, remorselessly driving up energy costs thus risking the "migration" of manufacturing plants to economies where the costs are lower.'


For more information ring:


    Civitas on: 020 7799 6677


Notes for Editors


i. Civitas is an independent think tank. It receives no state funding and has no links to any political party.


ii. Ruth Lea is a Non-Executive Director and Economic Advisor to the Arbuthnot Banking Group. She writes for various publications on economic matters and is a well-known media commentator on matters relating to business and the economy.


iii. Jeremy Nicholson is Director of the Energy Intensive Users Group. He is a Board member of the International Federation of Industrial Consumers, a member of Ofgem's Environmental Advisory Group, the government's Business Energy Forum, and a Fellow of the Energy Institute.


iv. British Energy Policy And The Threat To Manufacturing Industry by Ruth Lea and Jeremy Nicholson can be downloaded at this link.